1 – Exercises on Self-reflection and connections with the group

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Introduction to the Module

The policy of inclusion in schools is being implemented in countries around the world. This development challenges teachers to search for pedagogy and practices that will strengthen their professionalism in addressing diversity in their classroom. In this module, inclusion is discussed in two terms: self-reflection and the importance of connecting with the group. Furthermore, this module presents useful activities for developing inclusive practice as teachers prepare teaching, as they teach and collaborate with others.

By completing the module, the following objectives will be achieved:


To reflect upon concepts of otherness, unconscious bias, positive self-image, and changing perspectives


To challenge and deconstruct biases and stereotypes


To develop empathetic responses in relation to student needs


To present useful advice and resources for classroom practices


Do you agree with the following quotes and statements?


  • “What a teacher is, is more important than what he teaches.” – Karl Menninger
  • “We do not learn from experience. We learn from reflecting on experience.” – John Dewey
  • “Reflection is one of the most underused yet powerful tools for success.” – Richard Carlson
  • “Prejudices, it is well known, are most difficult to eradicate from the heart whose soil has never been loosened…they grow there, firm as weeds among stones” ― Charlotte Brontë (1847/1864)



  • Empathy and social skills involve one’s ability to perceive others’ emotions, feelings, and needs and help others to regulate their emotions to achieve desirable goals.
  • Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.


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Dee, T., & Gershenson, S. (2017). Unconscious Bias in the Classroom: Evidence and Opportunities. Mountain View, CA: Google Inc. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/O6Btqi

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Morilla P., P. Benefits of inclusive education: Implications from a personal and social perspective. Granada: University of Granada, 2016.

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Bibliography/ Sources/ Additional material

Achinstein, B., & Athanases, S. (2005). Focusing new teachers on diversity and equity: Toward a knowledge base for mentors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 843-862. 

Badea, C., & Sherman, D. K. (2019). Self-Affirmation and Prejudice Reduction: When and Why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28(1), 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418807705

Cohen, G. L., Sherman, D. K. (2014). The psychology of change: Self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 333371. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115137 

Craig, M. A., DeHart, T., Richeson, J. A., Fiedorowicz, L. (2012). Do unto others as others have done unto you? Perceiving sexism influences women’s evaluations of stigmatized racial groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1107–1119. doi:10.1177/0146167212445210 

Dessel, A. (2010). Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate. Education and Urban Society, 42(4), 407–429. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124510361852

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.

Duckworth, A. L. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. Scribner.

Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161–186. doi:annurev.psych.53.100901.135228.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social perception: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 77–83.

Fiske, S., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P. & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902.

Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., Impett, E. A., & Asher, E. R. (2004). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 (2), 228–245.

Gurin, P., Nagda, R., & Lopez, G. (2004). The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. Journal of Social Issues, 60, 17–34.

Kumar, S. (2016). A study on self-concept and academic achievement among the graduate teacher trainees. Journal of Pedagogic Researches and Renovations, 3(2), 3-15

Levy Paluck, E., & Green, D. P. (2009). Prejudice reduction: What works? A review and assessment of research and practice. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 339–367. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163607

Millner, U. C., & Kim, M. (2017). Perspectives on work and work-related challenges among Asian Americans with psychiatric disabilities. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 8(3), 177–189.

Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133–144.

Roffey, S., & Quinlan, D. (2021). Positive Education with Disadvantaged Students. In The Palgrave Handbook of Positive Education. (pp. 645-674). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Press.

Sommer, K. L. & Baumeister, R. F. (2002): Self-evaluation, persistence, and performance following implicit rejection: The role of trait self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, (28), 926-938.

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Vega, S. (2011). Escuela inclusiva. Temas para la educación, 13,  52), pp.1-12.

Grupo de educación  COGAM .(2017). 10 Recursos para trabajar la diversidad en las aulas.


Educación 3.0. (2020). Descubre las herramientas del INTEF para aplicar el DUA en el aula. Educación 3.0